While certain plumbing issues, such as a minor toilet clog, can be quickly addressed with do-it-yourself methods, most plumbing problems require the assistance of a professional. Most homes' plumbing comprises a series of incredibly complex, interconnected systems that require the care and knowledge of an experienced plumber. With nearly 30 years in the industry, Horizon Services can handle your every plumbing need. From routine drain cleaning to water heater repair to emergency plumbing services, our highly-trained plumbers have seen it all! We rely on advanced techniques, including trenchless sewer repair, and cutting-edge technology in order to provide you with superior plumbing services, every time. We are proud to offer same day service and next day installation at no additional charge, and we provide emergency plumbing services at any time of day or night, including holidays, for the same low rate as our standard services.

Bacteria have been shown to live in "premises plumbing systems". The latter refers to the "pipes and fixtures within a building that transport water to taps after it is delivered by the utility".[35] Community water systems have been known for centuries to spread waterborne diseases like typhoid and cholera. However, "opportunistic premises plumbing pathogens" have been recognized only more recently: Legionella pneumophila, discovered in 1976, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most commonly tracked bacteria, which people with depressed immunity can inhale or ingest and may become infected with.[36] Some of the locations where these opportunistic pathogens can grow include faucets, shower heads, water heaters and along pipe walls. Reasons that favor their growth are "high surface-to-volume ratio, intermittent stagnation, low disinfectant residual, and warming cycles". A high surface-to-volume ratio, i.e. a relatively large surface area allows the bacteria to form a biofilm, which protects them from disinfection.[36]
You need the right tools when repairing your plumbing systems or installing new devices. Menards® has a large variety of plumbing tools, including pipe threading; plumbing hand tools; plumbing tool kits; and torches and soldering tools. Keep your drains clean and free of clogs with our drain cleaning equipment and supplies, including hand, chemical, and powered solutions. 

I have no problem paying for any service I receive but when Allied Reddi-Rooter came into my home and immediately tell me and them tell me it would cost me 350.00 for them to install a new Rheem water heater (his recommendation) that cost 409.00 I have a problem. If the cost is exactly how Home Advisor indicates then he’s charging 350.00an hour.  I did my homework checked with other plumbers and it. Would not take an hour to remove old and install the new water heater. Thank Goodness I did my research won’t be using their services and I will be letting others know what happen to me. Shame on you Allied
Journeyman plumber: Once the requirements of an apprenticeship are fulfilled, plumbers can apply for a journeyman license. Many workers in the plumbing industry are journeymen. Obtaining a journeyman's license requires a fee and the successful passing of an exam. Licenses vary by state, although not all areas require journeymen to be licensed. Instead, the amount of work they are able to perform is limited.
Kay Plumbing Services has been locally owned and operated since 2008. We guarantee high quality, professional plumbing and gas services to the communities of Lexington, Columbia, Gilbert, Elgin, Blythewood, Irmo, Cayce and West Columbia South Carolina. Our plumbers are licensed and insured for new construction, established homes, multi-family residences and commercial businesses.
Amazon Home Services has a wide variety of plumbing services available to help you create and fix your bathroom, kitchen, sinks, faucets, drains, and even hot water dispensers and under-sink water filtration systems. Find top-notch plumbers through listing on Amazon Home Services to find great plumbing services at competitive prices. You can keep your bathroom in tip-top shape with our Toilet Replacement service, Showerhead Replacement service, Clogged Drain Repair service, and Bathtub Liner.
Sometimes a faucet leak can be stopped by replacing the rubber washer at the end of a faucet stem or cartridge.  This is a more common repair on older fixtures when things were built to last and designed to be able to be maintained.  Other times the whole stem or cartridge needs replacement or the bibb seat deeper back into the fixture needs replacement.  That leads to matching up the right components and often times making a trip to the hardware store or plumbing supply house necessary due to the many varieties, makes and models of faucets.  My advice is to make sure your Plumber has faucet repair kit on their truck before having them come out to assess the issue.
I just had my pipe under the sink unclogged  and new pipes put in $600.00, then they flushed out the pipe from under the sink to the outside pipe $700.00, Total of $1.600.00, I thought that the price was high, I got the plumber from Home Advisors, not sure they had to do all they did but they said I needed the work done.  The same evening hike using the dishwasher I had a leak in one of the pipes they put in, they came back the next day to fix it. Don't know if I will use them again.. They were K&D kitchens.
The water heater is one of the hardest working appliances in the home. With how often you rely on hot water in your day-to-day life, it’s a good idea to make sure that your hot water heater is kept in good condition. That’s what we’re here for! Whether it’s installation, repair, maintenance, or replacement, we can take care of all your water heater needs. Read More
Abacus’ licensed Electricians can troubleshoot any electrical problems you may have and replace or repair items such as electrical panels and circuit boards, electric surge protection, LED lighting, ceiling fans, complex electrical wiring or rewiring, backup or standby electric generators and more. Want an annual electrical inspection on all your lighting and electrical systems? Ask about the AMP Plan that can save you up to 15% on electrical repairs. This plan includes many things such as an annual electrical safety check to make sure that your home is safe and working properly for you and your family. Our licensed electricians will make sure that the electricity in your home is running at maximum efficiency.
The Pink Plumber truly leads the way when it comes to plumbing services for both residences and commercial properties. Whether you have an emergency, you are installing new fixtures or you just need routine maintenance our expert staff is here to help 24/7. We understand that you depend on your plumber to get to the root of the plumbing problem and provide an effective solution. We provide outstanding client service which is one of the main reasons why we have thousands of satisfied clients.
Not all plumbing companies can guarantee up-front pricing, superior workmanship and parts, licensed and insured plumbing contractors, and courteous support from uniformed professionals. Whether you are in need of drain cleaning or would like to schedule a plumbing inspection for your home, Mr. Rooter's plumbing services can handle it all! Our skilled plumbers are knowledgeable and equipped with the latest tools needed to achieve optimal results. Give us a call at (855) 982-2028, or request a job estimate online.

For plumbing in Ventura County, Ca you should be able to call the best at any time day or night to handle all your plumbing services. The best, of course, is Roto-Rooter Plumber Ventura, Ca. Reliable plumbing means a reliable plumber. Don’t just choose the first name that you find, choose the best services by calling Roto-Rooter in Ventura County. (805) 620-3700
Despite the Romans' common use of lead pipes, their aqueducts rarely poisoned people. Unlike other parts of the world where lead pipes cause poisoning, the Roman water had so much calcium in it that a layer of plaque prevented the water contacting the lead itself. What often causes confusion is the large amount of evidence of widespread lead poisoning, particularly amongst those who would have had easy access to piped water.[14] This was an unfortunate result of lead being used in cookware and as an additive to processed food and drink, for example as a preservative in wine.[15] Roman lead pipe inscriptions provided information on the owner to prevent water theft.

Hi. I hope someone can help me. I have a has water heater amd it seems to only work when it wants to. Regardless of amount of use some days I have got water and some days it runs out of hot water immediately even if it hasn't been used all day. And some days it runs out half way through a shower. I have already turned the temperature almost all the way up and nothing is helping. Is there a way too fix this or is it time for a replacement?

I have used ACE PLUMBING for years to service my properties. Most recently I used them for an emergency at 2 o’clock in the morning. They were at my doorstep in 30 minutes from placing the call! The owner, Jonathan, is super involved in the operations and supervised a larger project I did last fall. For every day that they were on the project I received a call from Jonathan updating me on the status of the job. I consider ACE PLUMBING to be one of San Francisco’s finest small businesses! Highly …
When you need a plumbing repair, rely on our certified, skilled plumbers. When it comes to the plumbing system in your home, you need someone you can trust to keep it in top working order; someone who can get there quickly and who will do the job right the first time. BGE HOME is your resource for plumbing service and can promptly take care of any repair, from stopping a leak, drain cleaning, fixing a garbage disposal, and everything in between. Whether your kitchen sink is clogged, a faucet is dripping or your water heater springs a leak, our priority is getting your plumbing problem repaired quickly and efficiently. Your satisfaction is our top priority, so our plumber will keep you informed and ensure we are meeting your expectations.
Eduardo is great. A few weeks ago I called him for a water heater malfunction, he came in within 2 hours, fixed the problem within one. And he gave me many options, explained them well and  recommended me to pick the cheapest one as it was the most cost efficient. Overall I'd say he's a very honest professional, doesn't over charge and really quick to identify and fix the problem. And that's all the qualities I'm looking for in a good plumber. Definitely gonna hire him again.

Eduardo came out very quickly and snaked the kitchen sink with great expertise. He recommended I have a cleanout installed and offered me a great price but since I live in apartment there wouldn't be too much long term benefit for me personally since I plan on moving out soon. I will be keeping his number handy though as I will be calling him in the future for any problems we have might. Thanks again Eduardo!


Prices, promotions, styles, and availability may vary. Our local stores do not honor online pricing. Prices and availability of products and services are subject to change without notice. Errors will be corrected where discovered, and Lowe's reserves the right to revoke any stated offer and to correct any errors, inaccuracies or omissions including after an order has been submitted.
Today Eduardo came to our home to fix the upstairs toilet. I noticed a water stain on my ceiling a couple months ago, and after measuring the distance from the wall, traced it to the toilet upstairs. I called another highly rated company on Yelp before calling Eduardo, and it was extremely difficult to get a pricing estimate from the woman who picked up. When I finally did get an estimate (after answering many of her questions) it ended up being much higher than what Eduardo charges. I definitely recommend giving Eduardo a call if you need help. He is straightforward, honest, and was instantly able to give me a price for a toilet reset. He was also upfront about additional costs if the fix ended up being more complicated, and could logically explain his pricing to me. I immediately felt like I could trust him to clearly identify problems and charge a fair price for his work. My parents don't speak much English, but he was very patient with us today while I translated for them, which I truly appreciate. When he came by today, he explained what he was doing step by step; he was very clear about the pros, cons, and costs associated with our different options. Eduardo's attitude is great, and I feel like he genuinely wanted to help us. Definitely the kind of person who you want to work with. My parents have already passed his information onto all of their church friends, and I have him saved as a contact in case I ever need help again. Thank you Eduardo! :)
BEST Air Conditioning Plumbing Repair, is a Nevada (NV) Heating, Cooling, Air Conditioning, Plumbing, Heat Pump, Ductless Mini-Split, Water Heater, and Furnace repair, service, replacement, and maintenance Company located in Las Vegas area. BEST Air Conditioning Plumbing Repair employs only the best plumber for plumbing repair and technician for air conditioner, furnace, and heat pump repair as well as all air conditioner, furnace, and water heater replacement in Las Vegas NV, Henderson NV, The Lakes NV, North Las Vegas NV, Sloan NV, Nellis Afb NV, Boulder City NV, Blue Diamond NV, Jean NV. So when you ask to find "A good heating, air conditioning, and plumbing repair or service company near me," you've come to the right place. To set-up a repair service estimate or replacement estimate, call (702) 857-5307. BEST Air Conditioning Plumbing Repair services all furnace, AC, humidifier, filter, thermostat and water heater brands including Carrier, Bryant, Payne, Trane, Lennox, Rheem, Ruud, Amana, Daikin, Mitsubishi, Fujitsu, Frigidaire, Gibson, Goodman, Maytag, A O Smith, Kohler, American Standard, General, Aprilaire, Honeywell, White Rodgers, Dynamic and Skuttle.*The service within 45 minutes applies to owner occupied households only, within service area, new customers or those on our BEST membership plan, during normal business hours of 8am-4pm Monday through Friday, all other times/days will still get same day service. Our guarantee is that if we don’t arrive within 45 minutes of call being scheduled that the service fee is waived.

The Handy customer service team is online 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If you have any concerns either before, during, or after your job, someone will be in contact with you to help make things right. No matter how big or small your job is, we’re confident that you’ll be satisfied by the affordable plumbers on the Handy platform. When you book local plumbing services through Handy, you’re in charge of when the work gets done. And should your situation change, you can always cancel or reschedule your appointment with at least to 24 hours’ notice.
We understand how frustrating it can be to come home to an unexpected plumbing problem. That is why our team works hard to provide solutions you can trust. Our job is to make your life easier, not add to your plumbing problem. You can expect nothing short of exceptional service from start to finish.As a full-service plumbing company we are able to offer our customers the best solutions using the latest techniques and technology. You can be confident that the job will be completed through safe and proven methods. Because our goal is the same as yours: to make sure you enjoy the safety, comfort, and peace of mind you deserve.
Complete Plumbing Services in Atlanta. Every customer's individual needs are important to us at Mr. Rooter Plumbing. Our focus of providing quality plumbing service and products combined with honesty has made our plumbers the first choice of many residential and commercial clients in the Metro Atlanta Area. Contact us today schedule an appointment with a local plumbers in Atlanta.
If repair is not possible, it may be time to schedule a sewer line replacement. Fortunately, at Mr. Rooter Plumbing, we take the time to explain your options, review the problem, and show you exactly how we are going to fix it. You can trust us to meet your needs and not oversell you on an unnecessary product during any replacement procedure. Our trenchless repair and replacement methods are less invasive than traditional methods and won’t tear up your lawn or landscaping. They’re also more cost-effective than other methods! We have repaired and replaced hundreds of sewer lines and work diligently to save you time and money on sewer line services.
Pipe replacement may be necessary for a variety of reasons. If you need to replace the old pipes in your whole home, or switch out a small section, Mike Diamond Services will ensure the process is timely and efficient. Old pipes can be the root of a variety of problems, and it’s important to replace them before they cause further damage to your home.
Being without hot water is no fun. But when you call Houston’s hometown plumbers, John Moore Services, you won’t have to go without hot water for long. Since 1965, Houstonians have counted on John Moore to have their water heaters replaced quickly and correctly. John Moore installs both Traditional and Tankless Water Heaters, so feel free to ask our licensed plumbers any questions you may have if you are interested in making a switch to tankless. Only select water heaters and water heater parts and connections pass our strict quality standards, so you can rest assured that your new water heater will be an efficient, cost-effective solution that will continue to meet your needs safely for many years to come.
When you need a plumbing repair, rely on our certified, skilled plumbers. When it comes to the plumbing system in your home, you need someone you can trust to keep it in top working order; someone who can get there quickly and who will do the job right the first time. BGE HOME is your resource for plumbing service and can promptly take care of any repair, from stopping a leak, drain cleaning, fixing a garbage disposal, and everything in between. Whether your kitchen sink is clogged, a faucet is dripping or your water heater springs a leak, our priority is getting your plumbing problem repaired quickly and efficiently. Your satisfaction is our top priority, so our plumber will keep you informed and ensure we are meeting your expectations.

"lead hung on a string to show the vertical line," early 14c., from Old French *plombe, plomee "sounding lead," and directly from Late Latin *plumba, originally plural of Latin plumbum "lead (the metal), lead ball; pipe; pencil," a word of unknown origin, related to Greek molybdos "lead" (dialectal bolimos) and perhaps from an extinct Mediterranean language, perhaps Iberian.

You can depend on Spengler to provide unmatched emergency plumber service and guaranteed satisfaction for your home and business plumbing needs. Our up-front prices, professionalism and friendly on-time service have helped us become the preferred choice for thousands of homes and businesses across the Metro East area including our immediate local area O’Fallon, Belleville, Fairview Heights, Shiloh, and Swansea. Other areas include Collinsville, Edwardsville, Alton, Highland, Granite City, and surrounding Illinois communities. Rooter plumbers in Belleville, IL provide plumbing maintenance including toilet repairs and clogged drain cleaning. Rooter’s and plumbers offer residential  plumbing services that clients depend on for all of their local plumbing needs.
Plumbers are skilled professionals who are trained to install and maintain pipes and systems for drinking water, sewage and drainage. They usually have trained through four- to five-year training programs, which include apprenticeships, via trade schools and community colleges. Plumbers’ areas of expertise typically go beyond pipes to include mathematics, blueprint reading, plumbing codes and water distribution. They handle plumbing emergencies, such as broken pipes or clogged drains, and install and maintain everything from a new piping system to a replacement faucet. Plumbers also know how to install bathtubs and showers, toilets, water heaters and dishwashers. Plumbers may work on residential or commercial sites, sometimes designing and laying out a pipe system during construction.
Roto-Rooter does more than unclog drains. We offer a full range of sewer services, including main sewer line repair, sewer line replacement, and sewer line cleaning. It is critical to get the proper help to repair or replace the sewer lines as soon as possible to avoid damage. Our plumbing professionals are trained to address the following sewer plumbing problems:
Sump pumps are pivotal during heavy rainstorms and prevent many issues that would require plumbing repairs. For example, when it rains, groundwater around your house’s foundation will be guided into a bordering drain system. From there, the water flow is directed into pipes and diverted to the sump pit, well, and sump pump for collection/elimination.
Keeping your trash dispoal clean isn't very difficult or time consuming. Fill the sink at least half full of soapy water. Remove the stopper from the drain while simultaneously turning on the disposal. This will fill the entire disposal with soapy water and help to flush out food buildup. It will also clean the blades and flush your pipes with clean water.

Sid called ahead and let me know what time he would show up. He arrived on time and quickly determined what needed to be fixed and explained it. He needed to make a few trips out to his truck to grab tools/supplies and put shoe covers on each time he entered the house. He quickly fixed our issue and cleaned up when he was finished. Great service from Sid!
With our intimate knowledge dealing with specific plumbing issues in the San Francisco area, we have a working familiarity with commonly occurring issues in local homes and businesses, as well as the best solutions to resolve them quickly. We can take on projects both big and small, and we have the tools and experience to get your home or business operating at top efficiency as quickly as possible.
Last year was a tough year as my son passed away. Two weeks later my water heater began leaking ruining the kitchen floor and bedroom closet. If that wasn't bad enough, our AC stopped working at the same time. Mr. Plumber was at my house until after midnight on a Sunday night to make sure we had hot water. Oh yes, Williams was on site and repaired my AC. It truly was a fragile time and the professionalism along with the compassion from both Mr. Plumber and Williams Comfort Air employees has created a life long client to my plumbing and HVAC needs.
We know that when your plumbing isn’t working, you don’t have time to wait. Our plumbers will arrive at your door on time, inspect the problem, and provide a written upfront estimate before any work is completed. No matter what plumbing problem you have, our team can fix it—guaranteed. Once the job is done, our technicians will clean up as if they were never there!
We are a second-generation plumbing company that is locally owned and operated. Since 2006, we have handled plumbing, drain, sewer and water heater repairs and replacements around Denver. Our master plumbers are highly trained and experienced in all types of plumbing and are ready to handle any situations that could arise. Call us the next time you need plumbing services in Denver and we would love to prove it to you. We have Certified Master Plumber’s License #MP-189274 and Colorado State Plumbing Contractor’s License #2110.
Cracked sewer pipes can be more than just a costly repair—they can result in extensive and pricey property damage and lead to serious health risks. Sewer line repair is the first line of defense when a sewer line fails. If the sewer line can’t be repaired, sewer line replacement is the only other option. Luckily, Mr. Rooter® Plumbing is your local source for quality sewer repair and replacement at any time.
"After reaching out to Dallas area Leak Detection company all had me backed out for days for a response. I went to Thumbtack and found DC who was able to get right on the issue of a major leak I had flooding my home near the garage water heater closet. He was determined to find the leak which was diagnosed to be behind the wall and we were able to isolate and only tear out the area of damage and leak and he fixed the busted on the one and only Pex tubing on this house which had hairline crack during this last winter freeze. He fixed the leak and was very professional, responsive and most of all Punctual he drove far because I live up far North Dallas area in Grayson County. Also the value in the repair for where I am located was easier on my budget. I would definitely rehire and go to DC for my future plumbing needs. A real Winner in my book of tradesman."
"Brent replaced the kitchen faucet, answered my questions. With this good experience, I called them for a leak I found later near the washer. Gary examined the total water system and how each piece related to the other, pointed out a couple of things that weren't up to code, checked the water pressure. It was more than what I expected, but I feel good about the safety and prevention measures taken. Gary was knowledgeable and explained things well. We received a good estimate up front."
Journeyman plumber: Once the requirements of an apprenticeship are fulfilled, plumbers can apply for a journeyman license. Many workers in the plumbing industry are journeymen. Obtaining a journeyman's license requires a fee and the successful passing of an exam. Licenses vary by state, although not all areas require journeymen to be licensed. Instead, the amount of work they are able to perform is limited.

You will be presented with options for repair or replacement, and our technicians will provide advice on the most cost-effective solution. We have a background in both commercial and residential plumbing. Whether you need drain cleaning, water heater repair, sewer line installation, water softener installation, or anything in between, we have you covered. We only use top-notch equipment and materials, and our experts can lead you to the best environmentally safe products available.

You can depend on Spengler to provide unmatched emergency plumber service and guaranteed satisfaction for your home and business plumbing needs. Our up-front prices, professionalism and friendly on-time service have helped us become the preferred choice for thousands of homes and businesses across the Metro East area including our immediate local area O’Fallon, Belleville, Fairview Heights, Shiloh, and Swansea. Other areas include Collinsville, Edwardsville, Alton, Highland, Granite City, and surrounding Illinois communities. Rooter plumbers in Belleville, IL provide plumbing maintenance including toilet repairs and clogged drain cleaning. Rooter’s and plumbers offer residential  plumbing services that clients depend on for all of their local plumbing needs.

Sewer main lines are mysterious places because, until recently, no one had any idea of the nature of the blockage. Roto-Rooter and other emergency plumbers would run the augering rooter machine down the line and hope that it adequately chewed through the obstruction to get the waste running again. But sewer video machines now allow plumbers and homeowners to see exactly what is blocking the line.
Whatever your preference and price point, there’s a tub to sooth. That’s, of course, if you want a bathtub. Many homeowners — particularly those who don’t have young children living with them — have thrown the tub out with the bath water in favor of installing a walk-in shower. Just make sure to consider the pros and cons of tub to shower conversions.

With over 20 years experience in Air Conditioning and Plumbing Repairs in the greater Las Vegas area, we will get the job done right the first time. We answer our telephones 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. Our technicians are Experienced, Drug Tested, Passed A Background Check, Licensed and Fully Trained. We give upfront Flat Rate pricing which means you pay by the job and not by the hour. All of our quotes are complete and presented to the client before work begins. The price you are quoted is the price you pay. No hidden fees or surprises!


Joe did an excellent job. He arrived on time, provided us with options, respected the option we selected, completed the work quickly and left the area very clean. He noticed that my husband was ex-military and so he provided us with military vet pricing as well as the complementary home protection plan. I would definitely use him for any future plumbing issues.
Hi Ginger, We're sorry you had this experience with a plumber in our network. Have you left the review for the company? We encourage homeowners to share their experiences so others have an honest idea of the company they are hiring. If you would like to speak with a rep regarding your concerns please reach out to [email protected] If you have a review you would like to submit please send it to [email protected] or visit this link: http://www.homeadvisor.com/write-a-review/. -HASupport
Thank you Eduardo for you excellent service and professionalism. We are very happy with our new faucet fixtures, we will be calling you out soon for replacement on others in our remaining bathrooms, the new valves under the sinks look great also! Excellent work! If your looking for an honest hardworking above and beyond plumber Eduardo is your best choice, Call him!

For the highest quality plumbing, heating, and AC repair services in Port St. Lucie, give your local experts at I Need the Plumber & Air Conditioning a call! Our family owned and operated company has 22 years of experience and is deeply rooted in a foundation of providing service and workmanship no less than the best. It is our desire to ensure that the families we serve have a relaxing place to come home to after a hard day's work, or a comfortable office environment for anyone to easily get plugged in. Considering the fact that we have handled thousands of jobs that left our customers happy and exceedingly satisfied, we know that we're doing our jobs.
Of all the various systems that a home or commercial building uses, the plumbing system is arguably one of the most important. Think about all the different uses you have for fresh, running water in your home or place of work. Would you want to go for an extended period of time without those conveniences? Fortunately, with us on your side, you don’t have to.

The Handy customer service team is online 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. If you have any concerns either before, during, or after your job, someone will be in contact with you to help make things right. No matter how big or small your job is, we’re confident that you’ll be satisfied by the affordable plumbers on the Handy platform. When you book local plumbing services through Handy, you’re in charge of when the work gets done. And should your situation change, you can always cancel or reschedule your appointment with at least to 24 hours’ notice.
Bacteria have been shown to live in "premises plumbing systems". The latter refers to the "pipes and fixtures within a building that transport water to taps after it is delivered by the utility".[35] Community water systems have been known for centuries to spread waterborne diseases like typhoid and cholera. However, "opportunistic premises plumbing pathogens" have been recognized only more recently: Legionella pneumophila, discovered in 1976, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most commonly tracked bacteria, which people with depressed immunity can inhale or ingest and may become infected with.[36] Some of the locations where these opportunistic pathogens can grow include faucets, shower heads, water heaters and along pipe walls. Reasons that favor their growth are "high surface-to-volume ratio, intermittent stagnation, low disinfectant residual, and warming cycles". A high surface-to-volume ratio, i.e. a relatively large surface area allows the bacteria to form a biofilm, which protects them from disinfection.[36]
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