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For many centuries, lead was the favoured material for water pipes, because its malleability made it practical to work into the desired shape. (Such use was so common that the word "plumbing" derives from plumbum, the Latin word for lead.) This was a source of lead-related health problems in the years before the health hazards of ingesting lead were fully understood; among these were stillbirths and high rates of infant mortality. Lead water pipes were still widely used in the early 20th century, and remain in many households. In addition, lead-tin alloy solder was commonly used to join copper pipes, but modern practice uses tin-antimony alloy solder instead, in order to eliminate lead hazards.[13]
Shop with confidence from a team you can trust. We are the pioneers of the online plumbing supply industry and have a deep understanding of unique, hard-to-find plumbing parts. We opened our online store in 1995, and we're still going strong today. Born into a world without Google, surviving the dot-com bubble, and flourishing in our 25th year, we continue to offer unrivaled customer service and a vast inventory. Because we don't believe in minimum orders, you have the freedom to order exactly what you need, anytime, anywhere.

Tankless water heaters usually cost more to install than traditional tanks, because many homes need to be retrofitted to accommodate the new system. Tankless electric water heaters retail on average between $150 and $1,200, and tankless natural gas water heaters retail between $200 and $1,300 on average. The lower prices ($150-$250) are generally for point-of-use tankless heaters that can be installed to boost hot water in high-demand areas such as the bathroom or kitchen sink. Tankless water heaters designed to heat whole homes usually start under $300 at the low end and go up to $1,400 or more. Pricing for whole-home varies with the heater’s technology and features. Nationally, standard water heater installation costs average $360-$780, but tankless water heater installation costs may range from $400 to $1,000, depending on the work needed. Some perks of tankless water heaters are that they have nearly double the life expectancy of traditional water heaters and are generally more cost-efficient. Homeowners may be able to save $100 or more per year on their utility bills with an Energy Star approved tankless heater, depending on how much hot water they use.
It doesn’t matter whether you’ve experienced a leaky toilet, a clogged kitchen sink, or a backed-up sewer line, Roto-Rooter professionals are available to provide 24/7 plumbing services. Even if you don’t know what the plumbing emergency is, you need a 24-hour plumber who knows how to handle it all. We’ll arrive on site quickly to assess the situation and provide emergency plumbing repairs. No need to worry about scheduling after hours plumbing services as Roto Rooter professionals are ready 24/7.
Looking for a local and trusted plumber that is nearby? Plumbers Today is here to help. We all have experienced at one time or another a plumbing emergency. Plumbers Today is here to relieve the stress of your plumbing problems. We offer 24-hour emergency plumbing services, and our plumbers come equipped with the latest plumbing technology so you can be assured that your job is not just done, but done right. Whether it is a pipe that is leaking, broken toilet, or clogged drain: no problem is too big or too small for Plumbers Today. Call us today to get your no-obligation estimate and to schedule service.
Specialized plumbing tools include pipe wrenches, flaring pliers, pipe vise, pipe bending machine, pipe cutter, dies, and joining tools such as soldering torches and crimp tools. New tools have been developed to help plumbers fix problems more efficiently. For example, plumbers use video cameras for inspections of hidden leaks or other problems; they also use hydro jets, and high pressure hydraulic pumps connected to steel cables for trench-less sewer line replacement.
On his first visit to our home, Eduardo quickly fixed our plumbing clog and also asked several questions to diagnose WHY we might be having these recurrent backups. He's the rare plumber who does more than just fix the symptom! He's also very conscientious about cost, informing us through the process of any work that would impact our bill. He offered us choices, and explained thee cost and benefit of each so we can make informed decisions and understand potential outcome: He's a plumber AND a plumbing consultant! Always respectful courteous and very tidy too. No hesitation in giving Eduardo 5 stars!

Hi Ginger, We're sorry you had this experience with a plumber in our network. Have you left the review for the company? We encourage homeowners to share their experiences so others have an honest idea of the company they are hiring. If you would like to speak with a rep regarding your concerns please reach out to [email protected] If you have a review you would like to submit please send it to [email protected] or visit this link: http://www.homeadvisor.com/write-a-review/. -HASupport
Houston’s ever-shifting clay soil puts homes in the greater Houston area at risk from slab leaks. Why? When the concrete slab under your home shifts, the pipes in or underneath the foundation can be damaged, disconnected, or break completely. Fortunately, John Moore plumbers have been working with Houston homeowners since 1965 and have the experience, training and tools to effectively detect and repair slab leaks. Our experienced plumbing team will perform a careful inspection, pinpoint the location, and then provide you with a detailed diagnosis and repair plan to address the leak quickly. For a serious plumbing issues, such as a slab leaks and re-pipes, you can count on our Houston plumbing company, John Moore Services, to treat you and your home with respect and provide you with quality workmanship – guaranteed
“Don’t assume that every Mr. Fix-it advertising his services in the local Pennysaver or on Craigslist is a licensed plumber,” says one New York plumber. There is no national standard for issuing licenses. Some plumbers are licensed by the state, others by the counties they work in. Check with your local city hall or chamber of commerce. They should be able to direct you to the appropriate source for a list of licensed plumbers in your area.
My plumbing experience was  to have the plumbing  disconnected under the sink so the counter top and new sink could be installed.  I thought the service  of $115 was high, but usually if there is an additional fees, it is usually rolled into the cost of repairs or labor.  This company also charged 3.75 % for putting it on a credit card, which was not mentioned until I received the invoice in the mail after paying on the phone.
You can depend on Spengler to provide unmatched emergency plumber service and guaranteed satisfaction for your home and business plumbing needs. Our up-front prices, professionalism and friendly on-time service have helped us become the preferred choice for thousands of homes and businesses across the Metro East area including our immediate local area O’Fallon, Belleville, Fairview Heights, Shiloh, and Swansea. Other areas include Collinsville, Edwardsville, Alton, Highland, Granite City, and surrounding Illinois communities. Rooter plumbers in Belleville, IL provide plumbing maintenance including toilet repairs and clogged drain cleaning. Rooter’s and plumbers offer residential  plumbing services that clients depend on for all of their local plumbing needs.
The salary is comparable to that in some trade jobs, like plumbers ($57,070), electricians ($57,910) and food service managers ($57,250). — Eugene Scott, Washington Post, "The teacher boycotts are a reminder of what Americans often get wrong about ‘class’," 5 Apr. 2018 His great-grandfather was a Sacramento saddlemaker, his grandfather a plumber. — Mike Dunne, sacbee, "Light-handed approach paying off for Sacramento winemaker Craig Haarmeyer | The Sacramento Bee," 28 Mar. 2018 Nichols acknowledges that experts span a broad range of professions, from academics to plumbers and auto mechanics. — John Timmer, Ars Technica, "First thing we do, let’s kill all the experts," 21 Oct. 2018 Prior to his retirement, Joe was employed for over 20 years as a plumber by the town of East Hartford-Board of Education. — courant.com, "Joseph M. McCarthy," 29 Mar. 2018 Repair and installation basics Experienced DIY plumbers should begin by giving themselves a thorough understanding of the appliance. — Roy Berendson, Popular Mechanics, "How To Fix a Water Heater, Or Install a New One," 14 Nov. 2018 The Best Choice for Ordinary Folks Not everybody who uses pliers has the hand and forearm strength of a plumber or an electrician. — Roy Berendsohn, Popular Mechanics, "You Know What Makes a Great Stocking Stuffer? Pliers.," 29 Nov. 2018 In addition to long hours for retail workers, Black Friday is the busiest day of the year for plumbers. — Amina Lake Abdelrahman, Good Housekeeping, "9 Fascinating Facts About Black Friday History," 21 Aug. 2018 In 2015, Homesense Heating and Cooling acquired the building and spent more than $1 million to redevelop it into Refinery 46, a co-working space for home service providers such as electricians and plumbers. — Liz Biro, Indianapolis Star, "Double 8 grocery stores: Here's what they are now," 1 May 2018
If you start hearing any strange noises, notice unpleasant smells coming out or your sump pump or it simply doesn't kick in for a long time please call our team of plumbing experts immediately for a free consultation. It might be the last chance to save your property from flooding and have us professionally install a new high-quality sump pump in the place of the old one for you.

Our plumbers are licensed, bonded, and insured and meet our rigid trust certification standards. Our services are guaranteed in writing against defects in materials and workmanship. So if you need to repair, maintain, or improve your plumbing or septic system, you can rely on Parker & Sons. Our plumbing service includes a 100% money back guarantee and our customer care policies are unmatched in the industry.
Eduardo took my information and made an appointment to come the next day. He also mentioned he would try to fit me in at the end of the day. Since I called so late, I really didn't expect him to accommodate me on the same day. Then at 4:30, Eduardo texted and called me that he could actually come shortly after 5 pm! I am so glad that I can get the problem fixed a day early!
Sewer lines can become clogged in either of two ways: obstructions that build up in the line from usage or obstructions that intrude on the line from outside. Over time, greases, fats, hair, and other items sent down the branch drains can build up on the walls of the sewer line and narrow its capacity. When that capacity is low enough, showers and tubs will not drain and toilets will not flush properly. Another way that a sewer line's capacity can be compromised is when elements outside of the line, namely tree roots, enter the line. Despite the strength of sewer pipe materials, tree roots' growth can be strong enough to penetrate the line.
Our failure to enforce any right or provision of these Terms will not be considered a waiver of those rights. If any provision of these Terms is held to be invalid or unenforceable by a court, the remaining provisions of these Terms will remain in effect. These Terms constitute the entire agreement between us regarding our Service, and supersede and replace any prior agreements we might have between us regarding the Service.
^ Jump up to: a b Joseph O. Falkinham III; Elizabeth D. Hilborn; Matthew J. Arduino; Amy Pruden; Marc A. Edwards (August 2015). "Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premises Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa". Environ Health Perspectives;. 123 (8). doi:10.1289/ehp.1408692. Archived from the original on May 31, 2015. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
We are the highly experienced emergency plumber providing 24-hour plumbing services throughout Los Angeles, Orange County and surrounding area in California. Our professional plumbing technicians are experts at all things plumbing, and we take pride in nurturing home-grown plumbers through our in-house training program. Take a look at our service areas.  No local plumbing company can beat our service or our coverage area.
 CON'T FROM COMMENTS EARLIER.  However,  the  installation took less than 3/4/ hour and was a basic regulator with no other function.  Looking up the price afterwards, invoice did not list type or price, it appears that it would have cost me around $60 for the regulator and another $15 or so for the additional supplies necessary to install it and it was really a rather simple job with easy access.    Given that, it seems that $300 for less that  an hours worth of on site work,  company says it does not include commute time in its prices, is a little high.  While flat rate quotes are nice, they must take into consideration situations where the work load differs depending on the circumstances.  Therefore, unless you are at the upper end of the harder work needed than the average job. it can be argued that my estimated price of $300 for labor was more than a little high.  Maybe I am wrong since I have not used their services for years and  am not knowledgeable of the costs of equipment and professional labor today.  
Essentially, trenchless sewer line repair means we won’t have to dig up your lawn. We can restore your sewer pipes and water lines efficiently and effectively, without tearing up your property. A variety of advanced techniques are at our disposal to ensure that your yard stays in tact while we repair your pipes. Our expert plumbers can effectively address your sewer line problems.

We understand how frustrating it can be to come home to an unexpected plumbing problem. That is why our team works hard to provide solutions you can trust. Our job is to make your life easier, not add to your plumbing problem. You can expect nothing short of exceptional service from start to finish.As a full-service plumbing company we are able to offer our customers the best solutions using the latest techniques and technology. You can be confident that the job will be completed through safe and proven methods. Because our goal is the same as yours: to make sure you enjoy the safety, comfort, and peace of mind you deserve.
Wooden pipes were used in London and elsewhere during the 16th and 17th centuries. The pipes were hollowed-out logs, which were tapered at the end with a small hole in which the water would pass through.[16] The multiple pipes were then sealed together with hot animal fat. They were often used in Philadelphia,[17] Boston, and Montreal in the 1800s, and built-up wooden tubes were widely used in the USA during the 20th century. These pipes, used in place of corrugated iron or reinforced concrete pipes, were made of sections cut from short lengths of wood. Locking of adjacent rings with hardwood dowel pins produced a flexible structure. About 100,000 feet of these wooden pipes were installed during WW2 in drainage culverts, storm sewers and conduits, under highways and at army camps, naval stations, airfields and ordnance plants.
My kitchen sink clogged up late Sunday and I was frantically calling plumbers that were supposedly open for service late on Sunday.  Out of the ten plumbers that were called, only two answered their phone and  and was glad Edward was one of them. He was courteous and professional. He wasn't able to fit me in Sunday night, I totally understood, but was bale to fit me in the next day. 

Eduardo took my information and made an appointment to come the next day. He also mentioned he would try to fit me in at the end of the day. Since I called so late, I really didn't expect him to accommodate me on the same day. Then at 4:30, Eduardo texted and called me that he could actually come shortly after 5 pm! I am so glad that I can get the problem fixed a day early!
When you book a local plumber using the Handy platform for water heater installation, to unclog a toilet, or to clean out your drains, they’ll always arrive with the equipment they’ll need to do a great job. It’s in their interest as much as it’s in yours to complete every job quickly, professionally, and efficiently. That’s why when they show up, they’ll be prepared for whatever curveballs your plumbing repairs may throw at them. When you use the Handy platform to book the best local plumbers, you’ll be asked to input a few details about the plumbing repair job. Using that information, your chosen local plumbing services provider will be able to prepare in advance and ensure they bring everything they need.
If repair is not possible, it may be time to schedule a sewer line replacement. Fortunately, at Mr. Rooter Plumbing, we take the time to explain your options, review the problem, and show you exactly how we are going to fix it. You can trust us to meet your needs and not oversell you on an unnecessary product during any replacement procedure. Our trenchless repair and replacement methods are less invasive than traditional methods and won’t tear up your lawn or landscaping. They’re also more cost-effective than other methods! We have repaired and replaced hundreds of sewer lines and work diligently to save you time and money on sewer line services.

Kay Plumbing Services has been locally owned and operated since 2008. We guarantee high quality, professional plumbing and gas services to the communities of Lexington, Columbia, Gilbert, Elgin, Blythewood, Irmo, Cayce and West Columbia South Carolina. Our plumbers are licensed and insured for new construction, established homes, multi-family residences and commercial businesses.
Estes Services offers comprehensive plumbing services in Atlanta and the surrounding areas. As our business was founded in 1949, we have seen every kind of problem a homeowner can have – with that type of experience, we have anything and everything covered for you and your plumbing needs. We offer 100% customer satisfaction, delivered with a tradition of integrity.
Our master plumbers in Houston will assess the age and integrity of your pipes and determine the best course of action. Whether your home plumbing requires a pipe replacement, a horizontal pipe replacement for the pipes in your attic, or a whole-home repipe with highly durable and flexible PEX piping, you can rest easy knowing that your home is in the experienced hands of the licensed and highly-qualified John Moore Houston plumbing team.
Tankless water heaters usually cost more to install than traditional tanks, because many homes need to be retrofitted to accommodate the new system. Tankless electric water heaters retail on average between $150 and $1,200, and tankless natural gas water heaters retail between $200 and $1,300 on average. The lower prices ($150-$250) are generally for point-of-use tankless heaters that can be installed to boost hot water in high-demand areas such as the bathroom or kitchen sink. Tankless water heaters designed to heat whole homes usually start under $300 at the low end and go up to $1,400 or more. Pricing for whole-home varies with the heater’s technology and features. Nationally, standard water heater installation costs average $360-$780, but tankless water heater installation costs may range from $400 to $1,000, depending on the work needed. Some perks of tankless water heaters are that they have nearly double the life expectancy of traditional water heaters and are generally more cost-efficient. Homeowners may be able to save $100 or more per year on their utility bills with an Energy Star approved tankless heater, depending on how much hot water they use.
My plumbing experience was  to have the plumbing  disconnected under the sink so the counter top and new sink could be installed.  I thought the service  of $115 was high, but usually if there is an additional fees, it is usually rolled into the cost of repairs or labor.  This company also charged 3.75 % for putting it on a credit card, which was not mentioned until I received the invoice in the mail after paying on the phone.
Water systems of ancient times relied on gravity for the supply of water, using pipes or channels usually made of clay, lead, bamboo, wood, or stone. Hollowed wooden logs wrapped in steel banding were used for plumbing pipes, particularly water mains. Logs were used for water distribution in England close to 500 years ago. US cities began using hollowed logs in the late 1700s through the 1800s. Today, most plumbing supply pipe is made out of steel, copper, and plastic; most waste (also known as "soil")[22] out of steel, copper, plastic, and cast iron.[22]
Bacteria have been shown to live in "premises plumbing systems". The latter refers to the "pipes and fixtures within a building that transport water to taps after it is delivered by the utility".[35] Community water systems have been known for centuries to spread waterborne diseases like typhoid and cholera. However, "opportunistic premises plumbing pathogens" have been recognized only more recently: Legionella pneumophila, discovered in 1976, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most commonly tracked bacteria, which people with depressed immunity can inhale or ingest and may become infected with.[36] Some of the locations where these opportunistic pathogens can grow include faucets, shower heads, water heaters and along pipe walls. Reasons that favor their growth are "high surface-to-volume ratio, intermittent stagnation, low disinfectant residual, and warming cycles". A high surface-to-volume ratio, i.e. a relatively large surface area allows the bacteria to form a biofilm, which protects them from disinfection.[36]
Much of the plumbing work in populated areas is regulated by government or quasi-government agencies due to the direct impact on the public's health, safety, and welfare. Plumbing installation and repair work on residences and other buildings generally must be done according to plumbing and building codes to protect the inhabitants of the buildings and to ensure safe, quality construction to future buyers. If permits are required for work, plumbing contractors typically secure them from the authorities on behalf of home or building owners.[citation needed]
Gogo Rooter also offers plenty of ways to save money – book online and save 10%, and be sure take a look at our coupons page to save even more! As a trusted plumber in San Jose, Gogo Rooter looks forward to helping you out with all your plumbing related needs and problems. Broken faucets, clogged pipes, slow drains, or unflushable toilets are no match for our team of experts. Call us today to schedule your appointment and learn more about how we can flush your problems away!\

^ Jump up to: a b Joseph O. Falkinham III; Elizabeth D. Hilborn; Matthew J. Arduino; Amy Pruden; Marc A. Edwards (August 2015). "Epidemiology and Ecology of Opportunistic Premises Plumbing Pathogens: Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa". Environ Health Perspectives;. 123 (8). doi:10.1289/ehp.1408692. Archived from the original on May 31, 2015. Retrieved August 1, 2015.
We strive to stay ahead of the curve with new equipment and employee training which is why we are regarded as a pioneer in this field. Our professionals leave no stone unturned in order to solve any type of problem you find with your pipes for fixtures. From a backed up bathtub, flooded basement, leaky pipes to a stopped up toilet; they can handle it all. In keeping with our client-focus approach; we have designed appropriate service agreements that are very client friendly.

Bacteria have been shown to live in "premises plumbing systems". The latter refers to the "pipes and fixtures within a building that transport water to taps after it is delivered by the utility".[35] Community water systems have been known for centuries to spread waterborne diseases like typhoid and cholera. However, "opportunistic premises plumbing pathogens" have been recognized only more recently: Legionella pneumophila, discovered in 1976, Mycobacterium avium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most commonly tracked bacteria, which people with depressed immunity can inhale or ingest and may become infected with.[36] Some of the locations where these opportunistic pathogens can grow include faucets, shower heads, water heaters and along pipe walls. Reasons that favor their growth are "high surface-to-volume ratio, intermittent stagnation, low disinfectant residual, and warming cycles". A high surface-to-volume ratio, i.e. a relatively large surface area allows the bacteria to form a biofilm, which protects them from disinfection.[36]

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